Neuronal glutamate transporters regulate glial excitatory transmission.
Tsai MC, Tanaka K, Overstreet-Wadiche L, Wadiche JI.
J Neurosci. (2012) 32:1528-35. Abstract
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Abstract
In the CNS, excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) localized to neurons and glia terminate the actions of synaptically released glutamate. Whereas glial transporters are primarily responsible for maintaining low ambient levels of extracellular glutamate, neuronal transporters have additional roles in shaping excitatory synaptic transmission. Here we test the hypothesis that the expression level of the Purkinje cell (PC)-specific transporter, EAAT4, near parallel fiber (PF) release sites controls the extrasynaptic glutamate concentration transient following synaptic stimulation. Expression of EAAT4 follows a parasagittal banding pattern that allows us to compare regions of high and low EAAT4-expressing PCs. Using EAAT4 promoter-driven eGFP reporter mice together with pharmacology and genetic deletion, we show that the level of neuronal transporter expression influences extrasynaptic transmission from PFs to adjacent Bergmann glia (BG). Surprisingly, a twofold difference in functional EAAT4 levels is sufficient to alter signaling to BG, although EAAT4 may only be responsible for removing a fraction of released glutamate. These results demonstrate that physiological regulation of neuronal transporter expression can alter extrasynaptic neuroglial signaling.
Ivy/neurogliaform interneurons coordinate activity in the neurogenic niche.
Markwardt SJ, Dieni CV, Wadiche JI, Overstreet-Wadiche L
Nat. Neurosci. (2011) 14:1407-09. Abstract
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Abstract
Depolarization by the neurotransmitter GABA regulates adult neurogenesis. We found interneurons of the neurogliaform cell family to be a primary source of GABA for newborn neurons in mouse dentate gyrus. GABAergic depolarization occurred in concert with reduced synaptic inhibition of mature neurons, suggesting that the local circuitry coordinates the activation of new and pre-existing cells.
Desynchronization of multivesicular release enhances Purkinje cell output.
Rudolph S, Overstreet-Wadiche L, Wadiche JI.
Neuron (2011) 70:991-1104. Abstract
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Abstract
The release of neurotransmitter-filled vesicles after action potentials occurs with discrete time courses: submillisecond phasic release that can be desynchronized by activity followed by "delayed release" that persists for tens of milliseconds. Delayed release has a well-established role in synaptic integration, but it is not clear whether desynchronization of phasic release has physiological consequences. At the climbing fiber to Purkinje cell synapse, the synchronous fusion of multiple vesicles is critical for generating complex spikes. Here we show that stimulation at physiological frequencies drives the temporal dispersion of vesicles undergoing multivesicular release, resulting in a slowing of the EPSC on the millisecond timescale. Remarkably, these changes in EPSC kinetics robustly alter the Purkinje cell complex spike in a manner that promotes axonal propagation of individual spikelets. Thus, desynchronization of multivesicular release enhances the precise and efficient information transfer by complex spikes.
Enhanced integration of newborn neurons after neonatal insults.
Pugh P, Adlaf E, Zhao CS, Markwardt S, Gavin C, Wadiche J, Overstreet-Wadiche L.
Front Neurosci. (2011) 5:45. Abstract
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Abstract
The production and integration of adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus is dramatically perturbed by a variety of pathological insults, including repetitive seizures and hypoxia/ischemia. Less is known about how insults affect early postnatal neurogenesis, during the developmental period when the majority of dentate neurons are produced. Here we tested how single episodes of hypoxia or chemically induced seizure activity in postnatal day 10 mice alter granule cell production and integration. Although neither insult was sufficient to alter the number of newborn neurons nor the population of proliferating cells, both treatments increased the dendritic complexity of newborn granule cells that were born around the time of the insult. Surprisingly, only the dendritic enhancement caused by hypoxia was associated with increased synaptic integration. These results suggest that alterations in dendritic integration can be dissociated from altered neural production and that integration appears to have a lower threshold for perturbation. Furthermore, newborn neurons in adult mice that experienced neonatal hypoxia had reduced dendritic length while having no alterations in number. Together these results suggest that single insults during the neonatal period can have both long- and short-term consequences for neuronal maturation.
Microglia shape adult hippocampal neurogenesis through apoptosis-coupled phagocytosis.
Sierra A, Encinas JM, Deudero JJ, Chancey JH, Enikolopov G, Overstreet-Wadiche LS, Tsirka SE, Maletic-Savatic M.
Cell Stem Cell. (2010) 7:483-95. Abstract
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Abstract
In the adult hippocampus, neuroprogenitor cells in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus give rise to newborn neuroblasts. However, only a small subset of these cells integrates into the hippocampal circuitry as mature neurons at the end of a 4 week period. Here, we show that the majority of the newborn cells undergo death by apoptosis in the first 1 to 4 days of their life, during the transition from amplifying neuroprogenitors to neuroblasts. These apoptotic newborn cells are rapidly cleared out through phagocytosis by unchallenged microglia present in the adult SGZ niche. Phagocytosis by the microglia is efficient and undeterred by increased age or inflammatory challenge. Our results suggest that the main critical period of newborn cell survival occurs within a few days of birth and reveal a new role for microglia in maintaining the homeostasis of the baseline neurogenic cascade.
Parvalbumin deficiency and GABAergic dysfunction in mice lacking PGC-1alpha.
Lucas EK, Markwardt SJ, Gupta S, Meador-Woodruff JH, Lin JD, Overstreet-Wadiche L, Cowell RM.
J Neurosci. (2010) 30: 7227-35. Abstract
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Abstract
The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a master regulator of metabolism in peripheral tissues, and it has been proposed that PGC-1alpha plays a similar role in the brain. Recent evidence suggests that PGC-1alpha is concentrated in GABAergic interneurons, so we investigated whether male and female PGC-1alpha -/- mice exhibit abnormalities in interneuron gene expression and/or function. We found a striking reduction in the expression of the Ca(2+)-binding protein parvalbumin (PV), but not other GABAergic markers, throughout the cerebrum in PGC-1alpha +/- and -/- mice. Furthermore, PGC-1alpha overexpression in cell culture was sufficient to robustly induce PV expression. Consistent with a reduction in PV rather than a loss of PV-expressing interneurons, spontaneous synaptic inhibition was not altered in PGC-1alpha -/- mice. However, evoked synaptic responses displayed less paired-pulse depression and dramatic facilitation in response to repetitive stimulation at the gamma frequency. PV transcript expression was also significantly reduced in retina and heart of PGC-1alpha -/- animals, suggesting that PGC-1alpha is required for proper expression of PV in multiple tissues. Together these findings indicate that PGC-1alpha is a novel regulator of interneuron gene expression and function and a potential therapeutic target for neurological disorders associated with interneuron dysfunction.
Input-specific GABAergic signaling to newborn neurons in adult dentate gyrus.
Markwardt SJ, Wadiche JI, Overstreet-Wadiche LS.
J Neurosci. (2009) 29:15063-72. Abstract
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Abstract
Adult neurogenesis is the multistage process of generating neurons from adult neural stem cells. Accumulating evidence indicates that GABAergic depolarization is an important regulator of this process. Here, we examined GABAergic signaling to newly generated granule cells (GCs) of the adult mouse dentate gyrus. We show that the first synaptic currents in newborn GCs are generated by activation of GABA(A) receptors by GABA with a spatiotemporal profile suggestive of transmitter spillover. However, the GABAergic response is not attributable to spillover from surrounding perisomatic synapses. Rather, our results suggest that slow synaptic responses in newborn GCs are generated by dedicated inputs that produce a relatively low concentration of GABA at postsynaptic receptors, similar to slow IPSCs in mature GCs. This form of synaptic signaling drives robust phasic depolarization of newborn GCs when the interneuron network is synchronously active, revealing a potential mechanism that translates hippocampal activity into regulation of adult neurogenesis via synaptic release of GABA.
Seizures accelerate functional integration of adult-generated granule cells.
Overstreet-Wadiche LS, Bromberg DA, Bensen AL, Westbrook GL.
J Neurosci. (2006) 26:4095-103. Abstract
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Abstract
In humans and experimental animals, structural and functional changes in neural circuits can accompany the development of epilepsy. In the dentate gyrus, seizures enhance adult neurogenesis, but it is unclear to what extent newborn granule cells participate in seizure-induced synaptic reorganization. During the first weeks of their existence, mouse newborn granule cells labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein have only short dendrites that lack excitatory input. We report that pilocarpine-induced seizures accelerated the morphological development of labeled granule cells, causing their dendrites to extend through the molecular layer. In whole-cell recordings 5-16 d after seizure induction, perforant-path stimulation now evoked glutamatergic input to newborn granule cells. These synaptic responses were mediated by monosynaptic as well as recurrent polysynaptic input. Thus, seizures facilitated functional integration of adult-generated granule cells. One month later, subsequent generations of newborn cells also showed alterations in dendrite morphology, suggesting persistent effects of seizures on granule cell maturation. The sensitivity of newborn granule cells to seizures could contribute to hyperexcitability during the latent period.
Delayed development of adult-generated granule cells in dentate gyrus.
Overstreet-Wadiche LS, Bensen AL, Westbrook GL.
J Neurosci. (2006) 26:2326-34. Abstract
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Abstract
A substantial fraction of adult-generated granule cells in the dentate gyrus survive and integrate into the existing neuronal network. These newborn neurons must navigate the environment of the adult brain, a setting that is presumably less optimized for neuronal maturation compared with that in the developing brain. We used EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) expression in newborn granule cells to compare the maturation of adult-generated granule cells to those generated in neonates. Labeled newborn granule cells had indistinguishable physiological properties in adults and neonates, indicating they were at the same functional stage. However, the maturation of adult-generated granule cells was slower than neonatal-generated granule cells. Depolarizing GABAergic network activity and transcription factor activation were reduced in adults relative to neonates, suggesting a role for neural activity in the maturation of newborn granule cells. Consistent with this idea, maturation was altered in mice lacking the GABA synthetic enzyme GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65). Together, these results provide evidence that activity-dependent processes in the local environment influence the maturation of newborn granule cells.
Intrinsic kinetics determine the time course of neuronal synaptic transporter currents.
Wadiche JI, Tzingounis AV, Jahr CE.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2006) 103:1083-7. Abstract
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Abstract
Efficient clearance of synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space is an absolute requirement for maintaining information processing in the central nervous system. In the cerebellum, clearance of glutamate relies on uptake by Bergmann glial cells and Purkinje cells (PCs). Uptake by PCs can be monitored by recording the synaptic transport current (STC) mediated by the PC-specific transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 4 (EAAT4). The slow time course of the PC STC has been used to argue that glutamate clearance is protracted. We find, however, that the time course of the STC is not affected by altering the amount of glutamate released at individual synapses or by partial transporter blockade, manipulations that would be expected to change the duration of the extracellular glutamate transient. Ion substitution experiments and kinetic modeling of the PC transporter current suggest that physiological levels of intracellular Na(+) and glutamate slow the cycling rate of transporters and thereby lengthen the time course of STCs. The model predicts that PC transporters bind glutamate quickly but that the actual cycling rate of EAAT4 in physiological conditions is slow; therefore, the STC reflects the intrinsic kinetics of the glutamate transporter, not the rate of glutamate clearance.
Patterned expression of Purkinje cell glutamate transporters controls synaptic plasticity.
Wadiche JI, Jahr CE.
Nat Neurosci. (2005) 8:1329-34. Abstract
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Abstract
Glutamate transporters are responsible for clearing synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space. If expressed at high enough densities, transporters can prevent activation of extrasynaptic receptors by rapidly lowering glutamate concentrations to insignificant levels. We find that synaptic activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors expressed by Purkinje cells is prevented in regions of rat cerebellum where the density of the glutamate transporter EAAT4 is high. The consequences of metabotropic receptor stimulation, including activation of a depolarizing conductance, cannabinoid-mediated presynaptic inhibition and long-term depression, are also limited in Purkinje cells expressing high levels of EAAT4. We conclude that neuronal uptake sites must be overwhelmed by glutamate to activate perisynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors. Regional differences in glutamate transporter expression affect the degree of metabotropic glutamate receptor activation and therefore regulate synaptic plasticity.
GABAergic signaling to newborn neurons in dentate gyrus.
Overstreet Wadiche L, Bromberg DA, Bensen AL, Westbrook GL.
J Neurophysiol. (2005) 94:4528-32. Abstract
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Abstract
Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus begins before birth but then continues into adulthood. Consequently, many newborn granule cells must integrate into a preexisting hippocampal network. Little is known about the timing of this process or the characteristics of the first established synapses. We used mice that transiently express enhanced green fluorescent protein in newborn granule cells to examine their synaptic input. Although newborn granule cells had functional glutamate receptors, evoked and spontaneous synaptic currents were exclusively GABAergic with immature characteristics including slow rise and decay phases and depolarized reversal potentials. Synaptic currents in newborn granule cells were relatively insensitive to the GABA(A) receptor modulator zolpidem compared with neighboring mature granule cells. Consistent with the kinetics and pharmacology, newborn granule cells isolated by fluorescent cell sorting lacked the alpha1 GABA(A) receptor subunit. Our results indicate that newborn granule cells initially receive only GABAergic synapses even in the adult.
Retroinhibition of presynaptic Ca2+ currents by endocannabinoids released via postsynaptic mGluR activation at a calyx synapse.
Kushmerick C, Price GD, Taschenberger H, Puente N, Renden R, Wadiche JI, Duvoisin RM, Grandes P, von Gersdorff H.
J Neurosci. (2004) 24:5955-65 Abstract
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Abstract
We investigated the mechanisms by which activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) leads to inhibition of synaptic currents at the calyx of Held synapse in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) of the rat auditory brainstem. In approximately 50% of the MNTB neurons tested, activation of group I mGluRs by the specific agonist (s)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) reversibly inhibited AMPA receptor- and NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs to a similar extent and reduced paired-pulse depression, suggestive of an inhibition of glutamate release. Presynaptic voltage-clamp experiments revealed a reversible reduction of Ca2+ currents by DHPG, with no significant modification of the presynaptic action potential waveform. Likewise, in approximately 50% of the tested cells, the CB1 receptor agonist (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone (WIN) reversibly inhibited EPSCs, presynaptic Ca2+ currents, and exocytosis. For a given cell, the amount of inhibition by DHPG correlated with that by WIN. Moreover, the inhibitory action of DHPG was blocked by the CB1R antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251) and occluded by WIN, indicating that DHPG and WIN operate via a common pathway. The inhibition of EPSCs by DHPG, but not by WIN, was abolished after dialyzing 40 mm BAPTA into the postsynaptic cell, suggesting that DHPG activated postsynaptic mGluRs. Light and electron microscopy immunolabeling indicated a presynaptic expression of CB1Rs and postsynaptic localization of mGluR1a. Our data suggest that activation of postsynaptic mGluRs triggers the Ca2+-dependent release of endocannabinoids that activate CB1 receptors on the calyx terminal, which leads to a reduction of presynaptic Ca2+ current and glutamate release.